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Diet soda and its artificial sweeteners

artificialsweeteners_diet_microbiota_diabetes

A hot topic last week in the world of nutrition: the effect of artificial sweeteners on your health. Artificial sweeteners seem to make life so easy, you can enjoy your occasional soda without getting the calories. I almost always choose the diet version when ordering soda, but looking into the newest research results, is that a smart choice?

Artificial sweeteners

The sweeteners that I will discuss in this article are aspartame, saccharin and sucralose. They do not provide any calories and are a lot (up to 20,000x) sweeter than sugar. These sweeteners do not contain any calories because our body cannot digest them. They pass trough your digestive system without being absorbed.

artificial_sweeteners_aspartame_saccharin_sucralose

Microbiota

In your large intestine live an incredible amount of bacteria; the microbiota. Because the sweeteners are not digested or absorbed they pass the microbiota, and here is where they have effects. A mice study now shows changes in the composition of the microbiota after the mice received sweeteners (aspartame, saccharin or sucralose) in their drinking water. In my PhD (I’m starting in a week, so excited!) I will also look into the effects that changes in the microbiota have on health. It is not completely clear how changes in microbiota composition influence health, but it is certain that it does have effects. That nutrition can change the composition of the microbiota has been known for a while, but now we also know that artificial sweeteners influence the microbiota. In humans the changes in microbiota after the consumption of artificial sweeteners has not been consistently shown yet, for that large and controlled studies are needed.

Diabetes

Back to the mice, the changes in microbiota in these mice led to a development of type 2 diabetes. In humans this has not been proven yet, the effects of sweeteners in humans seem to differ between persons. In some the blood sugar level rises (an indication that consumption could lead to diabetes) while in others nothing happens. Furthermore, an old (1988) study in diabetic patients did not find any effect of artificial sweeteners on blood sugar levels.

Cancer

It is often heard that artificial sweeteners increase the risk of cancer, but this has not been scientifically proven. There are enough reasons to consume artificial sweeteners in moderation, but cancer risk luckily is not one of them.

What do I do?

zoetstoffen_light_microbiota_diabetesI am adjusting my opinion on diet sodas and artificial sweeteners after these research results. I am not never going to drink a diet coke again, let’s not exaggerate. I am also not afraid that if I drink a glass of diet soda, eat a sugarfree piece of candy or eat a bowl of yogurt that is sweetend with artificial sweeteners, I will develop diabetes. But I do know now that artificial sweeteners have negative effects on your health, and should be consumed with moderation.

Used articles

  1. Suez J, Korem T, Zeevi D, Zilberman-Schapira G, Thaiss CA, Maza O, Israeli D, Zmora N, Gilad S, Weinberger A, Kuperman Y, Harmelin A, Kolodkin-Gal I, Shapira H, Halpen Z, Segal E, Elinav E; Artificial sweeteners induce glucose intolerance by altering the gut microbiota; Nature 2014 Sep 17
  2. Chattopadhyay S, Raychaudhuri U, Chakraborty R; Artificial sweeteners – a review; J Food Sci Technol 2014 Apr;51(4):611-21
  3. Cooper PL, Wahlqvist ML, Simpson RW; Sucrose versus saccharin as an added sweetener in non-insulin-dependent diabetes: short- and medium-term metabolic effects. Diabet Med 1988 5, 676–680.
  4. Marinovich M, Galli CL, Bosetti C, Gallus S, La Vecchia C; Aspartame, low-calorie sweeteners and disease: regulatory safety and epidemiological issues; Food Chem Toxicol. 2013 Oct;60:109-15

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